I would like to know how much or many bags of compost I need for a medium garden?
There is no right answer to this question. It just depends on how bad the soil is currently and how large the space is you are amending. Start with enough to spread the manure 1-2" thick over the space you are amending and do about the same every year until you have reached the desired results.
What all can be put in a compost pile? Are pea shells, banana peels, squash ends good as well?
Yes, as long as these itema are disease free, they are fine for adding to compost piles. This article should help as well: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/composting/ingredients/what-can-you-compost.htm
Is used cat litter (minus feces) safe to add to a composter? So far it has worked, but I don't have specific pH levels and wonder if small to medium amounts would be beneficial once processed. I'm also adding coffee, leaves, food and garden waste.
I would not use it in the garden or the compost pile due to the chemicals which are normally found in the clumping types.
NO, never use cat or dog feces in your compost. They are host to to many diseases. And especially if you are using your finished compost around edible plants. Even a "hot" compost pile does not provide enough heat to kill the bacteria and parasites found in cat and dog feces.
If you looking for extra nitrogen from manure, try worm castings. They pack a good nitrogen punch and are totally nontoxic
Can you use garden waste as compost material, such as squash plants, tomatoes, corn stalks, cucumber, butternut squash, pine needles from trees, etc. ?
Of course you can, just don't use disease plants or cuttings in your compost. Since those are mostly "green" you do want to balance them out with some "brown" as well. This article should be of help:
I'm making my first attempt at composting. My composting bin consists of 2 pallets set about 4 feet apart and up against a chain-link fence as a backing. I live in Zone 5. What do I do with/about the compost pile over the winter? Does it go dormant? Can I add to it thru the winter? Thanks
You can just leave it. You can add to it, though what you add will likely not decompose much, but the cold will keep it from smelling until it gets warm again and the composting begins again.
Some compost heaps in your zone can continue to compost if they are kept active because they will stay hot. This would require regular turning, though and, to be honest, the warm pile and food tends to attract animals in the winter so you are best letting it slow down and rest for the winter.
Can I put just used wood that has been chipped into the garden area? Will it decompose by next year if tilled in? Also, What is best way to use paper and cardboard in compost pile?
also wood chips take nitrogen from the soil, if used,add nitrogen material to them,best not to use inside garden,
I would not put treated wood chips in my garden. If untreated it depends on the size of the chips. It would be like adding wood mulch to the gardem. My does not break down in a year. Why not just use it as mulch around your plants.
How do you make compost?
These articles should help get you started: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/composting/basics/composting-basics.htm
How to make a cow dung compost.pleas tel me cow dung compost.