Night blooming cereus
What are the long rod like things that are sprouting and growing upward some reaching so far as high as five feet?
The queen of the night has the potential to be a very large plant, up to 6 feet tall in containers such as yours. What you are seeing is the nature of the beast - it will form tall stems on which flat leaves emerge. You can use a bamboo rod to support your plant. Or, if you desire, you can shorten the stems to a more manageable height - the best time to prune is after flowering.
For more information on the queen of the night plant, please visit the following link: