Yes, you can grow Peonies in containers.
Choose a large, light colored container with lots of drainage holes.
Peonies have large roots systems and will need lots of room.
A young nursery plant will need at least 1 1/2 feet of soil.
Plant with 65% top soil and 35% perlite. Peonies should not be potted in potting soil.
Dappled shade for you pot of Peonies and water approx once a week.
Fertilize in the spring with a low nitrogen fertilizer and again in the Fall.
Move the pot to a sheltered location that will not freeze over winter.
In a pot the roots may freeze.