Certified GKH Gardening Expert
Yes, they grow just fine under lighting. You will want at least 100 watts per plant, and you really want horticultural grade lighting.
Unless you are willing to spend quite a bit of money on LED, these should not be looked at. The high end ones are the best lights on the market, but the cheap panels should be avoided at all costs, as it is a complete waste of money.
Th best option that centers in compromise will be a ceramic metal halide fixture. They come in 315 watts and 630 watts (this is simply 2 315 watt bulbs) the smaller fixture will light a 4x4 area.
With the proper lighting you can treat them as you did outdoors, feeding occasionally.
On a side note, I have a pepper plant that is currently 3 years old under lighting, and several before that that have matched the length. They just get too unruly after several years.
This article will help: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/pepper/growing-hot-pepper-plants-inside.htm