Yes you can plant bare root roses in pots on your balcony. However, they need to be large pots that are 20 to 24 inches in diameter and 24 to 30 inches tall if they are going to be left in the pots for very long. If it is just for two or three months, they could be started in 5 gallon buckets. Make sure the pots or buckets have drainage holes in the bottoms so as not to have root rot problems.
of cause! that is what you buy if you get one in a pot. for most parts of the world it is too late to do it for this summer though.