Can I propagate the new little palms that grow on the side of the bulb of the mature Ponytail palm? If so, what do I do? Thanks.
Yes, you can. This article will help: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/ornamental/trees/palms-trees/propagate-palm-pups.htm
My twelve year old ponytail plant has flowered for the first time. The feathery blossoms are almost all gone. Should I cut off the long stalk that is left sprouting out of the centre, or does this produce more of the ponytail leaves to the plant? Are these little blossoms seeds of the plant? The flowery stem has almost no blossoms left now and the plant has this stalk sprouting from the middle with frail, rubbery type branches.
Go ahead and cut off the spent flower stalk where it emerges from the main stem. And congratulations, you must have a healthy and happy plant if it flowered for you.
My elephant foot palm has recently produced a fluffy light green growth about 2 feet high at the top.
If you mean the Beaucarnea recurvata, often called the ponytail palm, yes indeed they do flower. I'm guessing you have it outdoors, because if it's indoors and has decided to flower, you get a blue ribbon -- very unusual thing to see. Here's an article with some more information: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/houseplants/ponytail-palm/ponytail-palm-care.htm
Sometimes overnight they're turning yellow.
The soil is probably too wet. Ponytails don't like to sit in damp soil at all. If you have it in low light, get it into higher light right away -- just not direct sun. Try putting it where a fan can blow on it gently. The purpose is to dry it out as quickly as possible. You might even try removing it from its pot, setting the rootball on some newspapers or paper towels, and leaving it like that for a few days. In the future, don't water it until the soil in the bottom of the pot is almost dry. Use some kind of tester, like a moisture meter or a pencil you can stick in then feel for moisture. If it gets a little too dry, no harm done. The swollen base is a water storage facility.
I got myself a ponytail and not sure how and where I need to take off dead leaves. I love the palm but not familiar with it. Please help
You can cut off dead leaves (leaves that are completely yellow or brown) at the spot where they emerge from the stem. If your plant is in a pot, you will need to be careful not to use too much water. Ponytails need to get almost dry all the way to the bottom of the pot. This article will help you:https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/garden-how-to/soil-fertilizers/testing-moisture-in-plants.htm
If your plant is outdoors (I think South Africa is warm enough for these to grow outside) you don't need to worry about watering it at all, after the first couple of months. These articles will tell you more about the charming ponytail palm: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/houseplants/ponytail-palm/
Can ponytail palm trees be planted outside in Palm Springs, CA and when is the best time to plant?
Yes, it is fine to leave your ponytail palm outdoors in your zone. These plants are hardy in zone 9-12, so yours should do well without any special care. Plant in spring in full sun to part shade in well draining soil. The initial care should be the same as those grown inside: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/houseplants/ponytail-palm/ponytail-palm-care.htm
We moved a Ponytail Palm for a client and in doing so some of the leaves (the whole top) broke off. What care should be taken to ensure that it grows again? Note: it is a very large Ponytail Palm, and has two main stems each with several smaller stems. It is on 2 of these smaller stems that the "heads" broke off. Will it grow again where it broke off, or should one do something to prepare the stem to grow again?
You don't need to do anything special. Just maintain good watering and light, and the ponytail should sprout some new heads just below the broken spot.