Can all the canes be cut off the clump of bamboo roots when it is dug up to be transplanted?
If you cut all the canes down to the ground the canes do not regrow from the cut canes, but new ones will eventually grow from the base. However, I don't know that I would recommend cutting the canes down to the ground along with a transplant. I think your transplant stands to more successful if you move the canes with the roots. Also, I read that a newly transplanted bamboo plant can take a few years to send up new shoots, so you run the risk of looking at a bare patch.
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