Certified GKH Gardening Expert
You can! You will be best doing this in container, though It would help to start them indoors well before the soil warms up under horticultural lighting. This will allow you to plant out a fully mature plant. This means that you will get a good harvest, even though your warm season isn't long enough for sweet potatoes.
This article will help you to grow sweet potatoes in container: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/edible/vegetables/sweet-potato/sweet-potato-container-crops.htm