With all the types of flowers and plants available, it would be difficult to have such a chart.
I would first determine the type of soil and your growing zone to help make plant suggestions.
Well draining soil is a general must for most plants.
Other types of soil can be amended to make a better planting base for your garden.
Soil testing can help you know the nutritional make up of your soil.
Determine the type of garden that you would like to have; perennials, annuals, or trees and shrubs.
You will also want to determine the amount of sunlight that your garden space provides.
Here are some articles that will help you get started.