I'm interested in running my small London garden on permaculture principles. I know a bit about it but am stuck on what to do with the soil from last year's hanging baskets, boxes, raised beds, etc. Do you mix it with ground soil and refill the containers from there in spring or just leave it in the containers and add nutrients? I want to minimise inputs and not have to buy new bags of compost and soil but am concerned that without worms, etc.the soil may have lost its nutrients for food growing and be 'dead'. I've got a compost bin but it doesn't produce nearly enough to fill all the pots and containers. Thanks in advance for tips.
Certified GKH Gardening Expert
I would certainly refresh the soil by mixing the old with some new soil or sompost, provided the soil is healthy (free of disease/pests). Then you can refill the container and add your plants. Also, if you are concerned about the lack of worms, this article offers an alternative: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/composting/vermicomposting/worm-castings.htm
Here is more information on this type of gardening: https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/special/organic/the-essence-of-permaculture-gardening.htm