Here is a link that has information on growing Garlic in containers.
This is an option for your sprouted Garlic.
Most garlic is pretty hardy (down to -20 degrees Fahrenheit). Garlic actually needs the cold to grow properly. If you want, yes, you can plant it in a pot until outside temperatures are such that the ground soil is workable for you. Plant it outside in a sunny, well drained soil location and put a light (1 or 2 inch) layer of mulch on top of it.